As set out by Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria in their 2002 book Driven: ‘How Human Nature Shapes Our Choices’, they are the drives to:
- acquire (obtain scarce goods, including intangibles such as social status);
- bond (form connections with individuals and groups);
- comprehend (satisfy our curiosity and master the world around us);
- and defend (protect against external threats and promote justice).
These drives underlie everything we do. I totally agree to this. And this following content, is my way of trying to comprehend the world around me, and how we came into existence.
ImgSrc – yourgenome
Is this the beginning of the evolution of modern humans?
In Africa, around the present day horn of Africa, there are the first evidences of modern humans. Now let’s call them Neanderthals. These Neanderthals have similar feature of modern humans. Around one million years ago, huff, they are now moving out of Africa, into Europe. These types of hominids are going to evolve separately in distant lands from Africa, eventually will be surpassed, taken over by another group, who are significantly better evolved, in the sense of communication and thinking, enter the Homo sapiens. Though the Neanderthals and Homo sapiens had similar anatomical features, they used similar tools, but were over taken by Homo sapiens in the brain development department. Till this point, nobody thought, that these are the people, who are going to be the most advanced, capable creatures in the planet.
As the evolution went on, the homo sapiens got weaker physically, and stronger mentally. The stand out feature, I would say, was the ability to pass the knowledge, as they evolve. Take example of animals, each generation, learn to hunt, kill, then die. The next, from the scratch. And humans, I am amazed. They discover something, be it fire or electricity or what not, it is passed on to the next generation, to the next peoples. Communication is the flagship feature of the modern humans.
Now comes the evolution based on geographies. Humans, as the researches suggests, moved out of Africa, into middle east, further Asia, India, up into the Europe, then central Asia, Russia, the Bearing strait, into the Americas from there. So, as they moved out of Africa, consider Europe, which is more mountainous and cold, whereas Africa was plain and dry and hot. This is when we started adopting to different climatic geographies. In Europe, we needed a way to absorb vitamins, as the exposure to sun is less. So, our skin adapts, loses some of its elements, turns lighter, to absorb more vitamins.
But again, we should always understand that the evolution involves loss of lives, a lot. I mean, in thousands or sometimes millions. Because, not every regionally evolved hominids can accept change in climatic variation, geographical landscapes and food habits. They try to adapt, they die.
ImgSrc – national geographic
One such peculiar case is lactose intolerance. I have an interesting theory on this. Cows, known to be first domesticated in early Iran region of present world, are one of the first animals, to start coexisting with. Now, humans cease ability to process milk, after initial few years of mother’s feeding so far. For whatsoever reasons, these people started taking cow’s milk. Again a new habit cannot be accepted by many variants of modern humans, resulting in loss of lives and adaptation in body to process milk by some. This can explain why, there are still many people, if you see across northern Europe or may be America, who are lactose intolerant. They practically cannot process milk at all! Whereas, Asians, noticeably middle easterners and Indians, consume a lot of milk on a daily basis.
ImgSrc – venterpharma
And here we are, the incredible creatures, evolving every day, passing the knowledge, turning into an extraordinary survivals of all time in this planet! Hail Humans!!